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David Warner is an English actor who is known for playing both romantic leads and sinister or villainous characters, both in film and animation. Over the course of his long career he is most famous for his roles in films such as Tom Jones, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Cross of Iron, Madhouse on Castle Street, Morgan: A Suitable Case for Treatment, Little Malcolm, The Omen, The Island, Time Bandits, Tron, The Company of Wolves, Star Trek V: The Final Frontier, Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, The Lost World, Titanic and Planet of the Apes.
Warner was born in Manchester, Lancashire, England, the son of Doreen (née Hattersley) and Herbert Simon Warner, who was a nursing home proprietor. He was born out of wedlock and frequently taken to be brought up by each of his parents, eventually settling with his Russian Jewish father and his stepmother. He was educated at Feldon School, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire and trained for the stage at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA), London.
Warner made his professional stage debut at the Royal Court Theatre in January 1962, playing Snout, a minor role in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, directed by Tony Richardson for the English Stage Company. In March 1962 at the Belgrade Theatre, Coventry he played Conrad in Much Ado About Nothing, following which in June he appeared as Jim in Afore Night Come at the New Arts Theatre in London.
He joined the Royal Shakespeare Company in Stratford-upon-Avon in April 1963 to play Trinculo in The Tempest and Cinna the Poet in Julius Caesar, and in July was cast as Henry VI in the John Barton adaptation of Henry VI, Parts I, II and III, which comprised the first two plays from The Wars of the Roses trilogy. At the Aldwych Theatre, London, in January 1964, he again played Henry VI in the complete The Wars of the Roses history cycle (1964). Returning to Stratford in April he performed the title role in Richard II, Mouldy in Henry IV, Part 1 and Henry VI. At the Aldwych in October 1964, he was cast as Valentine Brose in the play Eh? by Henry Livings, a role he reprised in the 1968 film adaptation Work Is a Four-Letter Word.
He first played the title role in Hamlet at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in the 1965 repertoire. This production was transferred to the Aldwych Theatre in December of that year. In the 1966 Stratford season, his Hamlet was revived and he also played Sir Andrew Aguecheek in Twelfth Night. Finally at the Aldwych in January 1970, he played Julian in Tiny Alice.
According to his 2007 programme CV, Warner's other work for the theatre has included The Great Exhibition at Hampstead Theatre (February 1972); I, Claudius at the Queen's Theatre (July 1972); A Feast of Snails at the Lyric Theatre (February 2002); Where There's a Will at the Theatre Royal, Bath; King Lear at Chichester Festival Theatre (in 2005, see details below); and also Major Barbara on Broadway.
Film and television
In 1963, he made his film debut as the villainous Blifil in Tom Jones, and in 1965, starred as Henry VI in the BBC television version of the RSC's The Wars of the Roses cycle of Shakespeare's history plays. Another early television role came when he starred alongside Bob Dylan in the 1963 play Madhouse on Castle Street. A major step in his career was the leading role in Morgan: A Suitable Case for Treatment (1966) opposite Vanessa Redgrave, which established his reputation for playing slightly off-the-wall characters. He also appeared as Konstantin Treplev in Sidney Lumet's 1968 adaptation of Anton Chekhov's The Sea Gull and starred alongside Jason Robards and Stella Stevens as Reverend Joshua Duncan Sloane in Sam Peckinpah's The Ballad of Cable Hogue.
In horror films he appeared in one of the stories of From Beyond the Grave, opposite Gregory Peck in The Omen (1976) as the ill-fated photojournalist Keith Jennings, and the 1979 thriller Nightwing. He also starred in cult classic Waxwork (1988), and featured alongside a young Viggo Mortensen in 1990 film Tripwire.
He has often played villains, in films such as The Thirty Nine Steps (1978), Time After Time (1979), Time Bandits (1981), Tron (1982), Hanna's War (1988), and television series such as Batman: The Animated Series playing Ra's al Ghul, the anti-mutant scientist Herbert Landon in Spider-Man: The Animated Series, as well as rogue agent Alpha in the animated Men in Black series and the Archmage in Disney's Gargoyles and finally The Lobe in Freakazoid. He was also cast against type as Henry Niles in Straw Dogs (1971) and as Bob Cratchit in the 1984 telefilm A Christmas Carol starring George C. Scott as Scrooge. In addition, he played German SS General Reinhard Heydrich both in the film Hitler's SS: Portrait in Evil, and the television miniseries Holocaust; as sinister millionaire recluse Amos Hackshaw in HBO's original 1991 film Cast A Deadly Spell, who plots to use the world's most powerful spell book – the Necronomicon – to unleash the Lovecraftian Old Ones from eternal imprisonment upon the Earth. Warner was considered for the role of Freddy Krueger in A Nightmare on Elm Street after producers were impressed with his performance as Jack the Ripper in Time After Time but had to turn it down due to scheduling conflicts.
In 1981, Warner received an Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or Special for Masada as Pomponius Falco. In 1988 he appeared in the Danny Huston film Mr. North.
He subsequently appeared in movies such as Star Trek V: The Final Frontier (1989), Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, Avatar, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Secret of the Ooze (1991), Titanic (the third time he has appeared in a film about RMS Titanic) and Scream 2. In 2001 he played Captain James Sawyer in two episodes of A&E's adaptation of CS Forester's Hornblower series. He appeared in three episodes of the second season of Twin Peaks (1991). He also continues to play classical roles. In "Chain of Command", a 6th-season episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, he was a Cardassian interrogator. He based his portrayal on the evil "re-educator" from 1984. His less-spectacular roles included a double-role in the low-budget fantasy Quest of the Delta Knights (1993) which was eventually spoofed on Mystery Science Theater 3000. He also played Admiral Tolwyn in the movie version of Wing Commander.
Warner's sympathetic side had been evident in Sam Peckinpah's Cross of Iron (1977), where he portrayed Capt. Kiesel. Other "nice guy" roles include the charismatic "Aldous Gajic" in "Grail", a first season (1994) episode of Babylon 5 and "Chancellor Gorkon" in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991). In an episode of Lois & Clark he played Superman's deceased Kryptonian father Jor-El, who appeared to his son through holographic recordings. Warner has also played "ambiguous nice guys" such as vampire bat exterminator Philip Payne in 1979's Nightwing; and Dr. Richard Madden in 1994's Necronomicon: Book of the Dead. In Seven Servants he co-starred with Anthony Quinn in 1996.
He also appeared as mad scientist Dr. Alfred Necessiter in the film The Man with Two Brains in 1983 alongside Steve Martin and Kathleen Turner.
Warner contributed "Sonnet 25" to the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks (EMI Classics), which consists of Shakespearean sonnets and play excerpts as interpreted by famous actors and musicians. He has performed in many audio plays, starring in the Doctor Who "Unbound" play Sympathy for the Devil (2003) as an alternative version of the Doctor, and in a series of plays based on ITV's Sapphire & Steel as Steel, both for Big Finish Productions. He reprised his incarnation of the Doctor in a sequel, Masters of War (2008). In 2007, he guest starred as Isaac Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. He also guest starred in the BBC Radio 4 science-fiction comedy Nebulous (2005) as Professor Nebulous' arch-enemy Dr. Joseph Klench. In all these productions, Warner has worked with writer and comedian Mark Gatiss of the League of Gentlemen, and plays a guest role in the League's 2005 feature film The League of Gentlemen's Apocalypse. He has also performed in radio plays for the distinguished American companies L.A. Theatre Works and The Hollywood Theater of the Ear. In 2005, Warner read a new adaptation of Oliver Twist for BBC Radio 2 (adapted by Neville Teller and directed by Neil Gardner). In 2008, he guest-starred as Mycroft Holmes in the Bernice Summerfield audio play The Adventure of the Diogenes Damsel. In 2009, he was the voice of Lord Azlok of the Viperox, an insectoid alien race in the animated Doctor Who serial "Dreamland".
He has also contributed voice acting to a number of computer games, most notably playing the villain Jon Irenicus in Baldur's Gate II: Shadows of Amn and Morpheus in Fallout.
Warner also did voice work on the short-lived FOX animated show Toonsylvania as Dr. Vic Frankenstein. On the Cartoon Network animated television series The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy, David provided the voice of Nergal, a demonic creature from the Earth's core. He voiced the character until 2003, when he was replaced by Martin Jarvis. He also voiced one of Batman's greater enemies, Ra's Al Ghul, in Batman: The Animated Series, Superman: The Animated Series, and an episode of Batman Beyond. He also voiced the Lobe in Freakazoid and Alpha in Men in Black: The Series.
Warner narrated the Disney's direct-to-video Pooh's Grand Adventure: The Search for Christopher Robin.
In March 2010, it was announced that Warner would be joining the cast of the Dark Shadows audio drama miniseries Kingdom of the Dead.
In May 2005, at the Chichester Festival Theatre Warner made a return to Shakespeare, playing the title role in Steven Pimlott's production of King Lear. Tim Walker, reviewing the performance in the Sunday Telegraph, wrote: "Warner is physically the least imposing king I have ever seen, but his slight, gaunt body serves also to accentuate the vulnerability the part requires. So, too, does the fact that he is older by decades than most of the other members of the youthful cast."
On 30 October 2005, he appeared on stage at the Old Vic theatre in London in the one-night play Night Sky alongside Christopher Eccleston, Bruno Langley, Navin Chowdhry, Saffron Burrows and David Baddiel. In December 2006, he starred in Terry Pratchett's Hogfather on Sky1 as Lord Downey. And in August 2007, as an RSC Honorary Artist, he returned to Stratford for the first time in over 40 years to play Sir John Falstaff in the Courtyard Theatre revival of Henry IV, Part 1 and Henry IV, Part 2 which were part of the RSC Histories Cycle – making him the only British actor to have played Hamlet, Lear and Falstaff in major theatrical productions.
In February 2008, Warner was heard as the popular fictional character Hugo Rune in a new 13-part audio adaptation of Robert Rankin's The Brightonomicon released by Hokus Bloke Productions and BBC Audiobooks. He starred alongside some high profile names including cult science fiction actress and Superman star Sarah Douglas, Rupert Degas, Lord of the Rings actor Andy Serkis, Harry Potter villain Jason Isaacs, Mark Wing-Davey and Martin Jarvis (written by Elliott Stein & Neil Gardner, and produced/directed by Neil Gardner).
In October 2008, Warner played the role of Lord Mountbatten of Burma in the BBC Four television film In Love with Barbara, a biopic about the life of romantic novelist Barbara Cartland. He plays Povel Wallander, the father of Kurt Wallander, in BBC Four's Wallander.
In 2010, writer and actor Mark Gatiss interviewed Warner about his role in The Omen (1976) for his BBC documentary series A History of Horror.
Star Trek: The Original Series
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Star Trek is a science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry that aired from September 8, 1966 to September 2, 1969. Though the original series was titled simply Star Trek, it has acquired the retronym Star Trek: The Original Series (ST:TOS or TOS) to distinguish it from the spinoffs that followed, and from the Star Trek universe or franchise they comprise. Set in the 23rd century, the original Star Trek follows the adventures of the starship Enterprise and its crew, led by Captain James T. Kirk (William Shatner), his First Officer Mr. Spock (Leonard Nimoy), and his Chief Medical Officer Leonard McCoy (DeForest Kelley). William Shatner's voice-over introduction during each episode's opening credits stated the starship's purpose:
When Star Trek premiered on NBC in 1966, it was not an immediate hit; ratings were low and advertising revenue was lackluster. Even prior to the end of the first season of Star Trek, there were already calls in the network for the cancellation of the series due to its low Nielsen ratings. Bay Area Creature Features host John Stanley in his memoir I Was a TV Horror Host relates how Desilu head Lucille Ball at that time "single-handedly kept Star Trek from being dumped from the NBC-TV lineup."
Towards the end of the second season the show was also in danger of cancellation. Its fans succeeded in gaining a third season; however, NBC subsequently moved the show to the Friday Night Death slot at 10 PM. Star Trek was finally cancelled at the end of the third season, producing 79 episodes in total. However, this was enough for the show to be stripped in syndication, allowing it to become extremely popular and gather a large cult following during the 1970s. The success of the program was followed by five additional television series and eleven theatrical films, including the most recent film Star Trek released in May 2009. Guinness World Records lists the original Star Trek as having the largest number of spin-offs among all television shows in history.
Creation, development, and production
A longtime fan of science fiction, in 1964 Roddenberry put together a proposal for Star Trek, a science fiction television series set on board a large interstellar space ship dedicated to exploring the galaxy. Some influences Roddenberry noted were A. E. van Vogt's tales of the Space Beagle, Eric Frank Russell's Marathon stories, and the 1956 science fiction film Forbidden Planet. Parallels have also been drawn with the 1954 TV sci-fi series Rocky Jones, Space Ranger, a much less sophisticated space opera that nevertheless included many of the elements—organization, crew relationships, missions, elements of bridge layout, and even some technology—that made up Star Trek. Roddenberry also drew heavily from the Horatio Hornblower novels depicting a daring sea captain exercising broad discretionary authority on distant missions of noble purpose; his Kirk character was more or less Hornblower in space. Roddenberry had extensive experience in writing westerns that were particularly popular television fare at the time, and pitched the show to the network as a "Wagon Train to the stars."
In 1964, Roddenberry secured a three-year development deal with leading independent TV production company Desilu (founded by comedy stars Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz). In Roddenberry's original concept, the protagonist was named Captain Robert April of the "S.S. Yorktown". Eventually, this character became Captain Christopher Pike. The first pilot episode, "The Cage", was made in 1964, with actor Jeffrey Hunter in the role of Pike after Roddenberry's first choice, Lloyd Bridges had reportedly turned it down.
At a time when racial segregation was still firmly entrenched in many areas of the United States, Roddenberry envisaged a multi-racial and mixed-gender crew, based on his assumption that racial prejudice and sexism would not exist in the 23rd century. He also included recurring characters from alien races, including Spock, who was half human and half Vulcan, united under the banner of the United Federation of Planets.
Other Star Trek features involved solutions to basic production problems. The idea of the faster-than-light warp drive was not new to science fiction, but it allowed a narrative device that permitted the Enterprise to quickly traverse space. The matter transporter, by which crew members "beamed" from place to place, solved the problem of moving characters quickly from the ship to a planet, a spacecraft landing sequence for each episode being prohibitively expensive. The famous flip-open communicator was introduced as a plot device to strand the characters in challenging situations by malfunctioning, being lost or stolen, or out of range.
The Star Trek concept was first offered to the CBS network, but the channel turned it down for the more mainstream Irwin Allen production, Lost In Space. Star Trek was then offered to NBC, who commissioned and then turned down the first pilot, saying it was 'too cerebral'. However, the NBC executives were favorably impressed with the concept (and realising that the faults were partly due to the script they had selected) and made the unusual decision to commission a second pilot: "Where No Man Has Gone Before". Only the character of Spock (played by Leonard Nimoy) remained from the original pilot, and only two cast members (Majel Barrett and Leonard Nimoy) carried on to the series. Much of the first pilot's footage was ingeniously re-used in the later two-part episode, "The Menagerie".
An interesting note concerning NBC's interest in Star Trek: as told by Herb Solow, Executive in Charge of Production at Desilu, NBC was looking for series that would take full advantage of the new color TV technology. NBC was owned by RCA, the leader in manufacturing color televisions, and sought to sell more TVs by creating interest through its NBC network.
The second pilot introduced the main characters: Captain Kirk (William Shatner), chief engineer Lieutenant Commander Scott (James Doohan) and Lieutenant Sulu (George Takei). Sulu's title in this episode was Ship's Physicist (changed to Helmsman in subsequent episodes). Paul Fix played Dr. Mark Piper in the second pilot. Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy, (DeForest Kelley) joined the cast when principal photography began on the first season, along with Yeoman Janice Rand (Grace Lee Whitney) and communications officer Lieutenant Uhura (Nichelle Nichols.) Majel Barrett's role of Nurse Christine Chapel would make her debut later in "The Naked Time". Barrett, later Roddenberry's wife, also did the voice for the ship's computer. Roddenberry's inclusion of the Asian Sulu and black Uhura, both of them intelligent, well-spoken professionals, was a bold move when most television characters of the time were white and those who weren't were often presented in a highly stereotypical manner.
Roddenberry's production staff included art director Matt Jefferies. Jefferies designed the Enterprise; his contribution was commemorated in the so-called Jefferies tube, which became a standard part of the (fictional) design of Federation starships. Jefferies' starship concepts arrived at a final saucer-and-cylinders design that became a template for all subsequent Federation space vehicles. In addition to working with his brother, John, to create the series' famed phaser weapons, Jefferies also developed the main set for the Enterprise bridge (based on an original design by Pato Guzman) and used his practical experience as a WWII airman and knowledge of aircraft design to come up with a sleek, functional, ergonomic bridge layout. Costume designer William Ware Theiss created the striking look of the Enterprise uniforms and the risqué costumes for female guest stars. Artist and sculptor Wah Chang, who had worked for Walt Disney, was hired to design and manufacture props: he created the flip-open communicator and the portable sensing-recording-computing "tricorder". Later, he would create various memorable aliens, such as the Gorn.
The series introduced television viewers to many ideas which later became common in science fiction films: warp drive, force fields, wireless hand-held communicators and scanners, desktop computer terminals, laser surgery, starship cloaking devices. Although these concepts had numerous antecedents in sci-fi literature and film, they had never before been integrated in one presentation and most of them were certainly new to TV. Even the ship's automatic doors were a novel feature in 1966. In the 2002 book Star Trek: I'm Working On That, William Shatner and co-author Chip Walter explore some of these technologies and how they relate to today's world.
After a few episodes were filmed, but before they had been officially aired, Roddenberry screened one or two of them at Worldcon in Cleveland in August, 1966 and, as he related in a telegram to Desilu production executive Herbert F. Solow, received a standing ovation.
During the show's second season, the threat of cancellation loomed. The show's devoted fanbase conducted an unprecedented letter-writing campaign, petitioning NBC to keep the show on the air. This time the show was saved by an unprecedented write-in mail campaign spearheaded by a collection of science fiction fans of the show, most notably Bjo Trimble, and who succeeded in getting more than one million letters of support written to NBC corporate to save the show. The letters were written in such a way that NBC corporate, not a fan service, had to open and read them all, which severely challenged NBC's mail handling department. One NBC official indicated that one hundred and fifty thousand would have been enough to do the trick. NBC actually came on the air after Star Trek, one episode, and announced that the show had been renewed and to please stop writing to them. This prompted letters of thanks in similar numbers and with similar conditions requiring specific corporate attention.
When the show was renewed, however, it was placed into the Friday Night Death Slot, a time slot undesirable for its audience. Roddenberry attempted to force NBC to give it a better slot, and failed. As a result, Roddenberry chose to withdraw from the stress of daily production, though he remained nominally in charge of the series as executive producer. Roddenberry reduced his direct involvement in Star Trek before the start of the final season to protest the changed timeslot, and was replaced by Fred Freiberger. NBC then substantially reduced Star Trek's budget which brought about a marked decline in the quality of many third season episodes. As Nichelle Nichols writes:
The series was canceled in its third season, despite the protests of a renewed letter writing campaign. However, the marketing personnel of the network complained to management that the series' cancellation was premature. It turned out that after using new techniques for profiling demographics of the viewing audience, they found the Star Trek audience was highly desirable for advertisers to the point where they considered the series a highly profitable property. Unfortunately, that revelation came too late to resume production of the series.
Sulu and Uhura were not given first names in this series. Sulu's first name, Hikaru, was revealed non-canonically in Vonda McIntyre's Pocket Books novel The Entropy Effect. The name was "officially" put into the canon by George Takei in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. Uhura's first name was never mentioned on screen, but the name Nyota was used in fandom and in Pocket Book novels. It was finally put to canon in the 2009 movie chronicling the origins of the crew. Kirk's middle name was never used in the series until the Animated Series episode "Bem". Due to internal disagreements on the status of The Animated Series as official Star Trek canon, Kirk's middle name ('Tiberius') would not become canon until the events of Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. A tombstone in the second pilot intended for Kirk reads "James R. Kirk". However, this is often explained by Gary Mitchell, the person who created the tombstone, not knowing Kirk's actual name.
Majel Barrett also provided the voice of the computer in TOS and many other Star Trek series and movies. She also played (as a brunette) the part of Captain Pike's First Officer in the pilot episode "The Cage". Barrett married Roddenberry in 1969.
The relatively young, mop-topped Russian navigator Ensign Chekov was added in the second season. There may be some truth to the unofficial story that the Soviet newspaper Pravda complained that there were no Russians among the culturally diverse characters; this was seen as a personal slight since Russian Yuri Gagarin was the first man in space. However, studio documentation suggests that the intention was to introduce a character with more appeal to teenagers, especially girls. Walter Koenig noted in the 40th (2006) anniversary special of Star Trek: The Original Series that he doubted the Pravda rumor since Star Trek was never shown on Soviet television. It's also been claimed that former Monkees member Davy Jones may have served as a model for the character.
In addition, the series frequently included characters (usually security personnel wearing red uniforms) who are killed or injured soon after their introduction. So prevalent was this plot device that it inspired the term "redshirt" to denote a stock character whose sole purpose is to die violently in order to demonstrate the dangerous circumstances facing the main characters.
Star Trek made celebrities of its cast of largely unknown actors. Kelley had appeared in many films and TV shows, but mostly in smaller roles that showcased him as a villain. Nimoy also had previous TV and film experience but was also not well-known. Nimoy had partnered previously with William Shatner in a 1964 episode of The Man from U.N.C.L.E., "The Project Strigas Affair", a full two years before Star Trek aired for the first time. Prior to Star Trek, William Shatner had played Cyrano on Broadway, was well-known in the trade, taken part in "The Vulcan Affair" and had even turned down the part of Dr. Kildare. However, when roles became sparse he took the regular job after Jeffrey Hunter's contract wasn't renewed. After the episodes aired, many performers found themselves typecast due to their roles.
The three main characters were Kirk, Spock, and McCoy, with writers often playing the different personalities off each other: Kirk was passionate and often aggressive, but with a sly sense of humor; Spock was coolly logical; and McCoy was sardonic but always compassionate. In many stories the three clashed, with Kirk forced to make a tough decision while Spock advocated the logical but sometimes callous path and McCoy (or "Bones," as Kirk nicknamed him, short for "sawbones," a traditional, slightly pejorative nickname for a surgeon) insisted on doing whatever would cause the least harm. McCoy and Spock had a sparring relationship that masked their true affection and respect for each other, and their constant arguments became very popular with viewers.
The character Spock was at first rejected by network officials who feared his vaguely "satanic" appearance (with pointed ears and eyebrows) might prove upsetting to some viewers. The network had even airbrushed out Spock's pointed ears and eyebrows from publicity materials sent to network affiliates. Spock however went on to become one of the most popular characters on the show, as did McCoy's impassioned country-doctor personality. Spock, in fact, became a sex symbol of sorts to many young girls – something no one connected with the show had expected. Leonard Nimoy notes that the question of Spock's extraordinary sex appeal emerged "almost any time I talked to someone in the press...I never give it a thought....to try to deal with the question of Mr. Spock as a sex symbol is silly."
The series was created during a time of Cold War politics, and the plots of its episodes occasionally reflected this. The Original Series shows encounters with other advanced spacefaring civilizations, including the Klingons and the Romulans, used as symbolic references to the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, respectively.
Original Series cameo roles in later series
The sequel to the original series, Star Trek: The Next Generation, which premiered in 1987, was set approximately 80 years after the events of TOS. As that show and its spin-offs progressed, several TOS characters made appearances:
Leonard "Bones" McCoy, now a 137-year-old admiral, inspects the Enterprise-D during its first mission in "Encounter at Farpoint".
Scotty, now chronologically 147 years old, but still only physically 72 years old due to spending 75 years trapped in suspended animation, is rescued by the Enterprise-D crew and resumes his life in "Relics". Working along with Chief Engineer Geordi LaForge, Scotty uses some creative engineering to save the Enterprise. A grateful Captain Picard indefinitely lends him a shuttlecraft.
Spock, now a Vulcan ambassador, goes underground in the Romulan Empire in hopes of fostering peaceful coexistence with the Federation and reunification with Vulcan society ("Unification, Parts I and II"). Eventually, the Romulan homeworld, Romulus, and the United Federation of Planets are threatened with destruction by a supernova, but Spock proposed a solution to deal with the potential catastrophe. Unfortunately, Spock is unable to prevent Romulus from being destroyed while being successful in stopping the greater disaster. The Romulan Nero, who observed the tragedy, blamed Spock for the loss of his planet and family. Enraged, Nero pursues Spock but was caught in the artificial black hole created by the reaction of the "red matter" and the supernova. As a result, Nero's ship was sent 154 years into the past, where it encountered the USS Kelvin in the year 2233 and destroyed it, thereby altering history to create an alternate timeline. Ambassador Spock also enters the black hole, but only travels 129 years back in time. This results in a timeline with two Spocks, the "original" young Spock, and the older Ambassador Spock from the future. (Star Trek)
Sarek (portrayed by Mark Lenard), Spock's father, continued to be an ambassador for the next century, finally retiring to Vulcan where he died during the events of "Unification". Mark Lenard also appeared as Sarek in several of the movies, as well as playing the Romulan commander in the ST:TOS episode "Balance of Terror", and as a Klingon in Star Trek: The Motion Picture.
James Kirk disappears in 2293 during the maiden voyage of the Enterprise-B but 78 years later Kirk is recovered from The Nexus, an alternate plane of existence, by Enterprise-D Captain Jean-Luc Picard. Kirk's time in the 24th century is short however, when he is killed by Dr. Soran in Star Trek Generations.
Kang, Koloth, and Kor, the three Klingons featured in "Day of the Dove", "The Trouble With Tribbles" and "Errand of Mercy", continued to serve the Empire well into the 24th century. They appeared in the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Blood Oath" in which Kang and Koloth were killed. Kor later appeared in two more episodes: "The Sword of Kahless" and finally in "Once More Unto the Breach" where he died fighting in the Dominion War. A younger version of Kang, from the era of Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, later appeared in the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Flashback".
Sulu, promoted to captain of the USS Excelsior in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, reprises his role from that performance in the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Flashback". Grace Lee Whitney also reprises her role as Janice Rand in that same episode.
Walter Koenig returned to the role of Pavel Chekov in the second episode of the fan series Star Trek: New Voyages, "To Serve All My Days", an episode written by D.C. Fontana. Pavel saves Scotty from a plasma eruption in engineering and this affects a dormant virus (contracted in the original series episode "The Deadly Years") which causes him to age considerably faster. Chekov dies in the closing minutes of this episode, as this was Koenig's "on-screen" death of him portraying the character.
Sulu and Janice Rand (with George Takei and Grace Lee Whitney reprising their roles) appear in the third episode of the fan series Star Trek: New Voyages, "World Enough and Time". The episode which also features Sulu's daughter Demora Sulu, played again by Jacqueline Kim, who portrayed the character in Star Trek: Generations.
Arne Darvin, the Klingon disguised as a human in "The Trouble With Tribbles," appears in "Trials and Tribble-ations" with the intent to return to Deep Space Station K7 in 2267 and assassinate Kirk, whom Darvin blamed for his disgrace within the Klingon Empire.
Besides the above examples, there have been numerous non-canon novels and comic books published over the years in which TOS-era crew are depicted in the TNG era, either through time-travel or other means. In addition, many actors who appeared on TOS later made guest appearances as different characters in later series, most notably Majel Barrett, who not only provided the voice for most Starfleet computers in episodes of every spin-off series (including a single appearance on Enterprise, where the computers normally did not speak at all), but also had the recurring role of Lwaxana Troi in TNG and DS9. Diana Muldaur played Dr. Katherine Pulaski in the second season of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Muldaur was also a guest star in the episodes "Return to Tomorrow" and "Is There in Truth No Beauty?" of the original Star Trek series.
William Shatner, Leonard Nimoy, George Takei, Nichelle Nichols, and Walter Koenig all played themselves in an episode of Futurama called Where No Fan Has Gone Before.
In terms of its writing, Star Trek is notable as one of the earliest science-fiction TV series to utilize the services of leading contemporary science fiction writers, such as Robert Bloch, Norman Spinrad, Harlan Ellison and Theodore Sturgeon, as well as established TV writers. Series script editor Dorothy C. Fontana (originally Roddenberry's secretary) was also a vital part of the success of Star Trek-- she edited most of the series' scripts and wrote several episodes. Her credits read D.C. Fontana at the suggestion of Gene Roddenberry since he felt that a woman might not be taken seriously because almost all science fiction writers were men.
Several notable themes were tackled throughout the entire series which involved the exploration of major issues of 1960s USA, including sexism, racism, nationalism, and global war. Roddenberry utilized the allegory of a space vessel set many years in the future to explore these issues. Although Sammy Davis, Jr. and Nancy Sinatra had openly kissed on the December 1967 musical-variety special Movin' With Nancy, Star Trek was the first American television show to feature an interracial kiss between fictional characters (in the episode "Plato's Stepchildren") although the kiss was only mimed and depicted as involuntary.
Episodes such as "The Apple", "Who Mourns for Adonais?", and "The Return of the Archons" display subtle anti-religious (owing mainly to Roddenberry's own secular humanism) and anti-establishment themes. "Bread and Circuses" and "The Omega Glory" have themes that are more overtly pro-religion and patriotic.
Roddenberry also wanted to use the series as a 'Trojan Horse' to push back the envelope of NBC's censorship restrictions by disguising potentially controversial themes with a science fiction setting. Network and/or sponsor interference, up to and including wholesale censorship of scripts and film footage, was a regular occurrence in the 1960s and Star Trek suffered from its fair share of tampering. Scripts were routinely vetted and censored by the staff of NBC's Broadcast Standards Department, who copiously annotated every script with demands for cuts or changes (e.g. "Page 4: Please delete McCoy's expletive, 'Good Lord'" or "Page 43: Caution on the embrace; avoid open-mouthed kiss").
The Original Series was also noted for its sense of humor, such as Spock and McCoy's pointed, yet friendly, bickering. Episodes like "The Trouble with Tribbles," "I, Mudd," and "A Piece of the Action," however, were all written and staged as comedies. Star Trek's humor is generally much more subdued in the spin-offs and movies, with notable exceptions such as Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home.
Several episodes used the concept of duplicate Earths, allowing re-use of stock props and sets. "Bread and Circuses," "Miri" and "The Omega Glory" depict such worlds, and three episodes, "A Piece Of The Action," "Patterns Of Force," and "Plato's Stepchildren" are based on alien planets that have adopted period Earth cultures (Prohibition-era Chicago, Nazi Germany, and ancient Greece, respectively). However, "A Piece Of The Action" and "Patterns Of Force" show this as having resulted from contaminations of the native cultures of those planets, either before the imposition of the Prime Directive, as in "A Piece Of The Action," or in violation of it, as in "Patterns Of Force."
All 79 episodes of the series have been digitally remastered by CBS Home Entertainment (distributed by Paramount) and have since been released on DVD. (Note: this is not to be confused with the Star Trek Remastered project, discussed below.) Paramount released Season One of The Original Series on Blu-Ray on April 29, 2009. The Blu-Ray release contains both Original and Remastered episodes via seamless branching.
According to Entertainment Weekly, the following are the ten best episodes of Star Trek:
IGN.com listed its top ten:
Spacecast.com viewers voted on their top ten episodes in 2009:
"Star Trek Memories"
In 1983, Leonard Nimoy hosted a one-hour special as a promotional tie-in with the film Star Trek III: The Search for Spock, in which he recounted his memories of working on The Original Series and explained the origins of things such as the Vulcan nerve pinch and the Vulcan salute. This special continues to be widely seen in some areas; it was included in the syndication package for The Original Series, in order to bump up the episode count to 80.
The show's theme tune, immediately recognizable by many, was written by Alexander Courage, and has been featured in a number of Star Trek spin-off episodes and motion pictures. Gene Roddenberry subsequently wrote a set of accompanying lyrics; this allowed him to claim co-composer credit and hence 50% of the theme's performance royalties, even though the lyrics were never used in the series, nor did Roddenberry ever intend them to be. Courage considered Roddenberry's actions, while entirely legal, to be unethical, and chose to leave the series. Later episodes used stock recordings from Courage's earlier work. Jazz trumpeter Maynard Ferguson recorded a jazz fusion version of the tune with his big band during the late 1970s, and Nichelle Nichols performed the song live complete with lyrics.
For budgetary reasons, this series made significant use of "tracked" music, or music written for other episodes that was re-used in later episodes. Of the 79 episodes that were broadcast, only 31 had complete or partial original dramatic underscores created specifically for them. The remainder of the music in any episode was tracked from a different episode. Which episodes would have new music was mostly the decision of Robert H. Justman, the Associate Producer during the first two seasons.
Screen credits for the composers were given based on the amount of music composed for, or composed and re-used in, the episode. Some of these final music credits were occasionally incorrect.
Beyond the short works of "source" music (music whose source is seen or acknowledged onscreen) created for specific episodes, eight composers were contracted to create original dramatic underscore during the series run: Alexander Courage, George Duning, Jerry Fielding, Gerald Fried, Sol Kaplan, Samuel Matlovsky, Joseph Mullendore, and Fred Steiner. The composers conducted their own music. Of these composers, Steiner composed the original music for thirteen episodes and it is his instrumental arrangement of Alexander Courage's main theme that is heard over many of the end title credits of the series.
The tracked musical underscores were chosen and edited to the episode by the music editors, principal of whom were Robert Raff (most of Season One), Jim Henrikson (Season One and Two), and Richard Lapham (Season Three).
The original recordings of the music of some episodes were released in the United States commercially on the GNP Crescendo Record Co. label. Music for a number of the episodes was re-recorded by the Varese Sarabande label, with Fred Steiner conducting the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; and on the Label X label, with Tony Bremner conducting the Royal Philharmonic.
Although this series never won any Emmys, Star Trek was nominated for the following Emmy awards:
Outstanding Dramatic Series (Gene Roddenberry and Gene L. Coon), 1967
Outstanding Dramatic Series (Gene Roddenberry), 1968
Outstanding Supporting Actor (Leonard Nimoy as Mr. Spock), 1967, 1968, 1969
Outstanding Guest Appearance (Frank Gorshin as Commissioner Bele), 1969
Individual Achievement in Art Direction and Allied Crafts (Jim Rugg), 1967
Individual Achievement in Cinematography (Darrell Anderson, Linwood G. Dunn, and Joseph Westheimer), 1967
Individual Achievement in Film and Sound Editing (Douglas Grindstaff), 1967
Outstanding Achievement in Film Editing (Donald R. Rode), 1968
Special Classification of Individual Achievement for Photographic Effects (The Westheimer Company), 1968
Outstanding Achievement in Art Direction and Scenic Design (John Dwyer and Walter M. Jeffries), 1969
Outstanding Achievement in Film Editing (Donald R. Rode), 1969
Special Classification Achievements for Photographic Effects (The Howard A. Anderson Company, The Westheimer Company, Van der Veer Photo Effects, Cinema Research), 1969.
Eight of its episodes were nominated for one of science-fiction’s top awards, the Hugo Award, in the category "Best Dramatic Presentation". In 1967 the nominated episodes were "The Naked Time", "The Corbomite Maneuver", and "The Menagerie". In 1968 all nominees were Star Trek episodes: "Amok Time", "Mirror, Mirror", "The Doomsday Machine", "The Trouble with Tribbles", and "The City on the Edge of Forever". Star Trek won both years for the episodes "The Menagerie" and "The City on the Edge of Forever", respectively.
In 1968, Star Trek's most critically acclaimed episode, "The City on the Edge of Forever," written by Harlan Ellison, won the prestigious Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Teleplay, although this was for Ellison's original draft script, and not for the screenplay of the episode as it aired.
Home video release
Episodes of the Original Series were among the first television series to be released on the VHS and laserdisc formats in North America in the 1980s, with all episodes eventually being released to VHS. With the advent of DVD in the late 1990s, single DVDs featuring two episodes each in production order were released. In the early 2000s, Paramount Home Video reissued the series to DVD in a series of three deluxe season boxes with added featurettes and documentaries. In February 2009 Paramount announced that they will release the Original Series on Blu-ray. Seasons one and two have been released on blu-ray; the third will be released on December 15, 2009. The Blu-ray releases contain both Original and Remastered episodes via seamless-branching.
The Remastered Series
In September 2006, CBS Paramount Domestic Television (now known as CBS Television Distribution, the current rights holders for the Star Trek television franchises) began syndication of an enhanced version of Star Trek: The Original Series in high definition with new CGI visual effects. These were done under the supervision of Mike Okuda, technical consultant to several of the later series. The restoring and updating of the visual effects was performed by CBS Digital. All live-action footage was scanned in high definition from its first generation 35 mm film elements, while visual effects shots have been digitally reproduced. As noted in the "making of" DVD feature, first generation "original camera negatives" were used for all live-action footage but not for external shots of the ship and planets, etc. Notable changes include new space shots with a CGI Enterprise, and other new models (for example, a Gorn ship is shown in Arena), redone matte background shots, and other minor touches such as tidying up viewscreens. A small number of scenes have also been recomposed, and in some cases new actors have been placed into the background of some shots. In addition, the opening theme music has been re-recorded in digital stereo.
The first episode to be released to syndication was "Balance of Terror" on the weekend of September 16, 2006. Episodes were released at the rate of about one a week and broadcast in a 4:3 aspect ratio. Despite the HD remastering, CBS chose to deliver the broadcast syndication package in Standard Definition (SD TV). The HD format is currently only available via commercial downloads such as iTunes, XBox Live and streaming Netflix, and HD DVD/Blu-ray.
While the CGI shots have already been mastered in a 16:9 aspect ratio for future applications, they are currently broadcast in the US – along with the live-action footage – in the original 4:3 aspect ratio TV format to respect the show's original composition. If the producers chose to reformat the entire show for the 16:9 ratio, live-action footage would have to be recropped, widening the frame to the full width of the 35 mm negatives while trimming its height by nearly 30%. Although this would add a marginal amount of imagery on the sides, much more would need to be eliminated from the tops and bottoms of the frames to fit.
On July 26, 2007, CBS Home Entertainment announced that the remastered episodes of TOS would be released on a HD DVD/DVD hybrid format. Season 1 was released on November 20, 2007. Season 2 had been scheduled for release in the summer of 2008, but it was cancelled when Toshiba (which had been helping finance the remastering of the show) pulled out of the HD-DVD business. On August 5, 2008, the remastered Season 2 was released on DVD only. For this release, CBS and Paramount used discs without any disc art, making them look like the "Season 1 Remastered" HD DVD/DVD combo discs, despite having content only on one side. Season 3 was released on DVD only on November 18, 2008. On February 17, 2009 – Paramount announced the Season 1 of TOS on Blu-ray for a May release to coincide with the new feature film coming from Paramount. The Blu-ray release contains both the original and remastered episodes via seamless-branching.
In region 2 and region 4, all three seasons of the remastered Original Series became available on DVD in the slimline edition (in the UK and Germany in steelbook editions) on 27 April 2009 as well as the first season in Blu-Ray.The second season was released in a seven disc set on Blu-Ray in the U.S. on September 22, 2009 The third and final season will be released on Blu-Ray in the U.S. on December 15. With the release of the "Alternate Realities" box set, remastered Original Series episodes were included in a multi-series compilation for the first time. It is unknown if future compilation releases will exclusively use the remastered episodes or not.
Star Trek 2.0 on G4
On April 10, 2006, an interactive version of TOS, known as "Star Trek 2.0," began broadcast on the television channel G4 where members can use the online chat and "Spock Market." Messages from the online chat may be shown during the broadcast along with "Trek Stats" and "Trek Facts." The feature debuted on the cable network G4 when began playing episodes of Star Trek along with showing interactive menus. Sometime in 2007, they stopped airing the show in its 2.0 format. The show aired though on the network every Monday in a marathon until it was cancelled.
As a promotion of "Star Trek 2.0", advertising agency 72andSunny created four 30-second stop-motion commercials using detailed Mego action figures of the crew, which became enormously popular on video site YouTube as well as G4TV.com's "Streaming Pile" video site. Spock was voiced by Charlie Murphy (brother of Eddie Murphy). They also released a minute-long "Director's Cut" of the "Cribs" clip.[not in citation given]
On January 15, 2007, G4 launched "Star Trek: The Next Generation 2.0" at 9:00pm Monday through Friday. A press release for the show indicated it features TNG Facts and Stats along with 32 (up from 24) new stocks for the Spock Market game. "Star Trek: The Next Generation 2.0" was later removed from Monday nights.
An "urgent subspace message" on the Star Trek 2.0 Hailing Frequencies e-newsletter stated that "Star Trek: The Next Generation 2.0" was scheduled for a "refit". It no longer featured live chat, stats, or facts on screen. The Spock Market game continued running as usual until it was shut down.
Fan material and downloads
Star Trek has inspired fan-made and -produced series for free internet distribution, including Star Trek: Phase II. Walter Koenig, D. C. Fontana and other Star Trek actors and production personnel have participated in producing various episodes.
The cancellation of the series was remembered in a famous Saturday Night Live comedy sketch called "The Last Voyage of the Starship Enterprise", written by Michael O'Donoghue, which aired on NBC-TV on May 29, 1976, which became an instant classic among Star Trek fans.
CBS Interactive is presenting all 3 seasons of the series online via Adobe Flash streaming media. They are full-length episodes available free of charge, but with ads embedded into the stream of each episode. They are viewable at http://www.cbs.com/classics/star_trek.
In January 2007, the first season of Star Trek became available for download from Apple's iTunes Store. Although consumer reviews indicate that some of the episodes on iTunes are the newly "remastered" editions, iTunes editors had not indicated such, and if so, which are which. All first season episodes that had been remastered and aired were available from iTunes, except "Where No Man Has Gone Before," which remains in its original form. On March 20, 2007, the first season was again added to the iTunes Store, with separate downloads for the original and remastered versions of the show, though according to the customer reviews, the original version contains minor revisions such as special effect enhancements. CBS also uploaded all 3 Seasons of the show on their Veoh account.
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